The Dangerous Case of Donald Trump: 27 Psychiatrists and Mental Health Experts Assess a President by Bandy X. Lee

The Dangerous Case of Donald Trump: 27 Psychiatrists and Mental Health Experts Assess a President

The consensus view of two dozen psychiatrists and psychologists that Trump is dangerously mentally ill and that he presents a clear and present danger to the nation and our own mental health.This is not normal.Since the start of Donald Trump's presidential run, one question has quietly but urgently permeated the observations of concerned citizens: What is wrong with him? C...

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The Dangerous Case of Donald Trump: 27 Psychiatrists and Mental Health Experts Assess a President Reviews

  • Owlseyes

    Will Trump Be the Death of the Goldwater Rule?

    in:

    -Is it possible to know the political affiliations of those 27?

  • Bettie☯

    description:

    description:

  • Betsy Robinson

    10/9/17--revised review after finishing this amazing book:

    I've been waiting for this book—the words of highly trained mental health professionals who are brave enough to risk backlash from their own associations by putting the safety of all people ahead of their rules to say nothing about individuals they have not treated. In a meticulously written foreword, one of the authors makes the case that "duty to warn" people whose well-being is in danger trumps the "Goldwater Rule" about silence. (Ther

    10/9/17--revised review after finishing this amazing book:

    I've been waiting for this book—the words of highly trained mental health professionals who are brave enough to risk backlash from their own associations by putting the safety of all people ahead of their rules to say nothing about individuals they have not treated. In a meticulously written foreword, one of the authors makes the case that "duty to warn" people whose well-being is in danger trumps the "Goldwater Rule" about silence. (There is an entire section of chapters on the ethics of speaking out—far too much to reduce into a review byte.) We are all in danger from this individual we have installed in the highest office in the land, and I consider the 27 authors of this step-by-step analysis of Trump's severe psychological impairments to be whistle blowers.

    But what are the political affiliations of the contributors and are they biased? This is immediately addressed: it doesn't matter. The content is pedagogy not politics: the nature of psychological disorders. They are described in all their variations; they are all recognizable as played out by this president—the proofs are provided; and their dire results are delineated, well researched, and broad. And the final chapter regarding recommended immediate action to assess presidential fitness now and in the future—grounded in Section Four of the Twenty-fifth Amendment issues of "a written declaration that the President is unable to discharge the powers and duties of his office"—are required to be nonpartisan in nature.

    In discussions about the spectrum of the foregoing characteristics, as well as "malignant narcissism," delusional ideation, functional impairment, and many other mental health categories, foremost is the topic of danger. And many of the contributors are specialists in the study of violence and danger and professionally assess whether a person is a danger to themselves or others. Over and over they conclude that even if they are not willing to diagnose a mental illness in somebody they have never treated, they can diagnose clear and imminent danger!

    They repeatedly warn about Trump's instability spiraling into psychosis and resulting in the destruction of democracy and a nuclear war.

    Says John D. Garner, PhD, in his chapter "Donald Trump is: a) Bad; b); Mad; c) All of the Above": Trump "evinces the most destructive and dangerous collection of psychiatric symptoms possible for a leader. . . . our job is . . . to warn the public that the election of Donald Trump is a true emergency, and that the consequences most likely will be catastrophic."

    Says Henry J. Friedman, MD, in the chapter "On Seeing What You See and Saying What You Know: A Psychiatrist's Responsibility": "When as a psychiatrist, I watch commentators and reporters struggling to understand or explain President Trump's latest irrational position . . . I wish that I could help them understand his paranoid character and why there should be no surprise that Trump behaves this way. They should be prepared to witness many more situations in which Trump feels betrayed and turns on those who have previously served him. Paranoids are always finding betrayal in those surrounding them, and react with retaliatory anger—Hitler and Stalin, by murdering their newly minted enemies; and Trump, by firing them. Psychiatric knowledge and terminology will save reporters and the public from remaining confused and attempting to find explanations of behavior that could easily be understood if Trump's paranoid character were always kept in mind. This is the only way to ensure the preservation and viability of our democracy and our national security."

    In addition to this kind of material, there is a treasure trove of other psychological stuff: discussion of character traits that we can identify with in moderation and what happens when they become pathological; talk about new areas of therapy opened up by Trump events; repeated discussion of the "Trump Effect" and "Trump anxiety disorder," a specific kind of new anxiety and trauma or reactivation of old trauma due to the culture of Trump and what we can do about it, and an incredible chapter about what Trump tells us about our cultural Self—all informative articles that make this book a page-turner; and for many of us, long-awaited good medicine and, in turn, a call to action to speak out with whatever we have to offer.

    I'd wager that anybody growing up in an abusive and abused family has wished there were somebody big to protect them. And perhaps when they've become adults and looked back at their situation, they've been appalled that it could have been as apparent as it was and nobody stepped in. Where were the authorities? How could a community have ignored something so obvious?

    We are now that abused family, and I'm grateful that the authorities have finally bucked their own fear of rocking the boat or breaking the rules enough to sound the call, to offer their good medicine. I only hope we will all listen and be as alarmed and therefore as active as they are.

    ***

    At the same time that it alarms you, reading this book may also calm you down if you are upset about Trump. How? It will validate your feelings and let you know that "this is a real thing"—the opposite of Trump's habit of "gaslighting" (claiming that lies are truth and there is something wrong with anybody who does not see it his way). Once you have calmed a little, you may start to see Trump for what he is—a seriously disturbed individual who does indeed pose a danger to all of us. However, he is only one piece of an orchestrated puzzle designed to destroy our union. If you can see that Trump is a mere player in a much larger societal upset, if you can accept what author Thomas Singer, MD, in his chapter "Trump and the American Collective Psyche," says about what Trump tells us about the state of our collective Self and you can participate ". . . in a deep resurgence of activism to reclaim our most cherished and threatened American values" and "resist our tendency to cocoon ourselves in a self-righteous, arrogant bubble of narcissistic ideals, even in the name of being 'progressive,'" here is a blog that attempts to help with that larger picture,

    .

    And here is useful counsel for our deportment, from

    by Basil Liddell Hart, used by JFK in his considerations about the Cuban Missile Crisis, as quoted in the chapter "The Loneliness of Fateful Decisions" by Edwin B. Fisher, PhD:

    How to do that? Follow cognitive scientist George Lakoff's advice in his book

    :

    video, deals with Goldwater Rule, bias from politics, and other issues.

    This powerful

    has gone out to all of Congress. (You need to be a Facebook user to access the page.)

    Also, the book's contributors have a website with actionable suggestions:

    .

  • Ellen Swan

    Everyone should read this book. It not only delves into Trump's sickness, but ours.

  • Scriptor Ignotus

    Is Donald Trump crazy like a fox, or is he crazy like a crazy person? Do we let him off the hook by calling him crazy at all, thereby attributing his moral imbecility to some impersonal “illness” rather than to his malignant personality? What exactly is

    with the man, and what does it say about American civil society—the American Self, to put it in the terms of analytical psychology—that we elected him as our president and gave him unprecedented power to wreak unilateral destruction upon th

    Is Donald Trump crazy like a fox, or is he crazy like a crazy person? Do we let him off the hook by calling him crazy at all, thereby attributing his moral imbecility to some impersonal “illness” rather than to his malignant personality? What exactly is

    with the man, and what does it say about American civil society—the American Self, to put it in the terms of analytical psychology—that we elected him as our president and gave him unprecedented power to wreak unilateral destruction upon the entire planet? How has Trump affected the collective American psyche, particularly among those who have been targeted by his defamatory and conspiratorial rhetoric? Is Trump’s psychosis a mirror of our own; and if so, what’s the cure? These are some of the questions addressed in this book, a collection of essays about the Trump Phenomenon written by mental health professionals.

    The overwhelming consensus of these essays is that Trump is psychologically and temperamentally unfit to be President of the United States, and that there is virtually no limit to how destructive—indeed cataclysmic—the consequences of his presidency might be for Americans and for the world at large. He is so psychologically compromised, in fact, that it is difficult to tell where his personality disorders end and his policy agenda or political philosophy would begin, if he had them. Though most of the contributors in this book are careful not to “diagnose” Trump the way they would one of their patients, they are not shy about offering suggestions as to what form such a hypothetical diagnosis might take.

    The most common hypothetical diagnosis for Trump, and the most obvious one even for laymen, is an extreme form of Narcissistic Personality Disorder. Narcissists have a hyper-inflated sense of self-worth and personal merit, and will go to extraordinary lengths to achieve the emotional high of praise and adulation. Desperate to bolster their fragile egos, often wounded by feelings of vulnerability as children, narcissists feel a constant need to assert their uniqueness and superiority, regardless of how little these assertions align with reality.

    One of the toxic effects of extreme narcissism is that it serves as an easy handmaiden for delusional thinking. Another potential diagnosis for Trump is a rare thing called Delusional Disorder; a somewhat arbitrarily-defined disorder for people who suffer from extended periods of delusional thinking, but not from a mental illness like schizophrenia of which detachment from reality is but one element.

    A delusion is defined as a “rigidly held, demonstrably false belief, which is impervious to any contradictory facts.” Given this definition, I could exhaust the rest of my word limit merely by listing the delusional statements Trump has made during his presidential campaign and his presidency. Here is a small sample of bizarre beliefs which Trump has espoused:

    • Barack Obama was not born in the United States, making him ineligible to be President. He released a forged birth certificate, and had Hawaii’s state health director murdered to prevent him from revealing the truth. He is also secretly a Muslim. [Later in his campaign, Trump claimed that Hillary Clinton started the “birther” movement, when in fact Trump had in 2011.]

    • Supreme Court Justice Antonin Scalia was murdered; possibly by people working for Hillary Clinton’s election campaign.

    • Ted Cruz’s father was involved in the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.

    • “Thousands and thousands” of Muslims in New Jersey openly celebrated the 9/11 terrorist attacks in the streets.

    • Trump won the popular vote in the presidential election. The three million additional votes that Hillary Clinton received were all cast illegally by non-citizens.

    • Trump won the largest electoral college landslide since Ronald Reagan. [In fact, his electoral college victory was the slimmest of any president in the last forty years besides George W. Bush]

    • The crowd at Trump’s inauguration was the largest ever. [Video and photographic evidence shows that his inaugural crowd was significantly smaller than the one at Obama’s inauguration]

    • President Obama wiretapped Trump Tower during Trump’s campaign.

    • President Obama created ISIS.

    • “We’re gonna build a wall, and Mexico is going to pay for it!”

    As author and journalist Gail Sheehy explains,

    says John Gartner,

    But the issue is not so much whether Trump thinks these patently false statements are “literally” true; rather, it is how willingly and instinctually he distorts reality, betrays and abuses his confidants and inferiors, and pushes away uncomfortable information, all to satisfy his malignant narcissism.

    We can only speculate as to what made him this way. His father, Fred Trump, was a monomaniacal real estate mogul who divided the world between “killers” and “losers” and left no room for ambiguity about which role he wanted his sons to fulfill. Having spent his early childhood in the lap of luxury, Donald was suddenly packed off to military school at the age of thirteen; “banished from the family home”, as biographer Michael D’Antonio put it.

    This was probably a major factor in his arrested emotional development, and his tendency to revert to juvenile insults when he feels threatened and vulnerable. Yet another potential diagnosis for Trump is what psychologists Philip Zimbardo and Rosemary Sword call Extreme Present Hedonism. People with this condition will aggrandize themselves and frantically seek out adulation much as a narcissist would, in order to shield themselves from negative events in the past. Their personality, in effect, is dominated by a perpetual and belatedly-felt need to refute the “loser” they see in their past self.

    Donald’s oldest brother, Freddie Jr., died at the age of forty-three due to complications from alcoholism, which was probably brought on in part by the intensity of their father’s expectations. After Freddie’s death, Donald became heir-apparent to his father’s real estate empire, and the rest is history. Donald took on his father’s outlook while also seeking to outdo him; striking out on his own and making risky investments in expensive Manhattan properties.

    I was surprised to learn that Fred Trump’s discriminatory exclusion of black renters became the subject of a Woody Guthrie song. Here are some of the lyrics:

    As can be seen, the combination of these disorders—malignant narcissism, extreme present hedonism, paranoia, sadism—makes for a lethal cocktail; especially when they combine in a man who now controls the American nuclear arsenal. But what does it say about

    that this cocktail is apparently so delicious to so many?

    According to Jungian analyst Thomas Singer, the Trump Phenomenon has opened a release valve for the shadow side of America’s national unconscious. Amid the progressivist strides in American life over the past fifty years, certain segments of the American population who once felt they had a solid stake in America’s identity have now felt themselves marginalized and existentially threatened.

    Clinging to what they perceive to be a shrinking piece of the American pie, their nostalgia for the “good old days” has been skillfully evoked and manipulated by two of the Trump campaign’s favorite trigger-terms: “Political Correctness”, and his campaign slogan, “Make America Great Again”.

    For the Trump supporter, “Political Correctness” invokes everything wrong with contemporary society; everything they are no longer allowed to say and believe, all of the social and economic changes that have aroused their anxiety for decades, but which no prominent politician has seemed willing to name and oppose candidly—until now. The power of this cultural complex is such that Trump could subvert any social taboo—even speak openly about breaking the law—so long as his opponents could be labeled as too politically correct.

    So strong was the psychic shadow of American WASPs that in the eyes of Trump’s supporters, what Trump said

    , merely by

    , no matter how vulgar or delusional it was in point of fact.

    If all of this isn’t depressing enough, it becomes even more so when you consider what might happen when Trump’s supporters realize that his lofty promises, the alternative reality which he has constructed for half of the country to live in, is so much dissipating vapor. What will a deranged president do when the house of cards comes tumbling down?

    And what can we do about it? We asked for this.

  • Jaidee

    3.5 "interesting but repetitive" stars !!

    A group of psychiatrists and other mental health experts chime in on the psychopathology and mental status of President Trump.

    There is a lot of discussion on the Goldwater rule which you can read briefly about here:

    This is where experts do some diagnosing of public figures from afar and the dangers and unethicalness of doing so. These experts speak about the dangerousness of Mr. Trump and I feel that much of what

    3.5 "interesting but repetitive" stars !!

    A group of psychiatrists and other mental health experts chime in on the psychopathology and mental status of President Trump.

    There is a lot of discussion on the Goldwater rule which you can read briefly about here:

    This is where experts do some diagnosing of public figures from afar and the dangers and unethicalness of doing so. These experts speak about the dangerousness of Mr. Trump and I feel that much of what they talk about is legit.

    However, this book needed to be better edited as much of it was repetitive and unnecessary.

    In a nutshell, (so to speak)...according to these experts :

    1. Mr. Trump likely has Malignant Narcissistic Personality Disorder...much different than the run of the mill Narcissistic Personality Disorder which is quite common among the general population. This is a very lethal mix as Narcissism is combined with Sociopathy. Remember Mr. Trump has access to nuclear arsenal.

    2. The possibility that Mr. Trump also has Delusional Disorder. One of the most difficult conditions to treat if its even treatable. Remember Mr. Trump has access to nuclear arsenal.

    3. The possibility of age related dementia or cognitive impairment. Remember Mr. Trump has access to nuclear arsenal.

    The two articles I found most interesting intellectually were:

    Trump's Daddy Issues: A Toxic Mix for America by Steve Wruble MD...a developmental look at the personality make-up of Mr. Trump.

    Trump and the American Collective Psyche by Thomas Singer MD....the psychopathology of America as a Nation that would elect Mr. Trump.

    Remember Mr. Trump has access to nuclear arsenal and there is no requirement that he be neurologically and psychologically fit to do this most important job !! Why is this ??

  • Cynthia

    I am more than half way through this book...riveting! I take a beard, and then I stop and say..'well, I get the idea, time to switch over to another book'...but then I go back. I feel vindicated reading this, fascinated by the thoroughness, and impressed by credentials of the authors. I'm not a professional, but have studied psychology ever since I majored in that subject and fell in love with it. My daughter majored in it as well, and is a mental health worker. Mental health was a big topic in

    I am more than half way through this book...riveting! I take a beard, and then I stop and say..'well, I get the idea, time to switch over to another book'...but then I go back. I feel vindicated reading this, fascinated by the thoroughness, and impressed by credentials of the authors. I'm not a professional, but have studied psychology ever since I majored in that subject and fell in love with it. My daughter majored in it as well, and is a mental health worker. Mental health was a big topic in my world growing up as, like most families I know, had a serious issue right at home.

    Donald Trump is severely affected by several critical disorders. He is dangerous. He is not stable, He should not be president, politics aside. I hope that this book is read by people across the political spectrum, but alas, I fear this is just another case of "preaching to the choir'. What 'Trumper' or even Republican will read this? It should be on every college reading list... and quickly.

    This is the book that would have been written 'after' it was too late... how do we get this out there and widely read, "before" it is too late?

  • Paquita Maria Sanchez

    Terrifying.

  • ☘Misericordia☘  ⚡ϟ⚡ϟ⚡⛈   ❂❤❣

    Basically, the mental health experts, coincidentally, the same ones that have gotten the American public to be the most overmedicated one on Earth, decided they can perform diagnostics without even talking to the guy. Wow! I definitely wouldn't want to undergo the tender mercies of such doctors. Basically, they took some D.Tump's quotes and went on to overanalyse these at length, spewing lots of stuff on their personal worldviews all the way.

    Unethical as hell as well. Why do the doctors believe

    Basically, the mental health experts, coincidentally, the same ones that have gotten the American public to be the most overmedicated one on Earth, decided they can perform diagnostics without even talking to the guy. Wow! I definitely wouldn't want to undergo the tender mercies of such doctors. Basically, they took some D.Tump's quotes and went on to overanalyse these at length, spewing lots of stuff on their personal worldviews all the way.

    Unethical as hell as well. Why do the doctors believe that their 'diagnoses' can be voiced in public? Can we have the Hillary's diagnoses as well? And their own ones, for the mix? Sometimes I wonder, tongue in the cheek, how such psychologists would feel about hairdressers going wild in the same way and starting to give obligatory and unasked for haircuts to passers-by. Would they draw parallels or not?

    And as for the 'case' thing: There are no normal people. Each of us is a case. There is not even such a thing as 'normal'. Basically, what is normal for you may be abnormal for the guy next street or across the ocean. End of story, no hype identified.

    DD 9/11/2017. I gave this book 1 star because it's valuable in explaining, very grafically, and crystal clear to people of all backgrounds, why psychology is mostly a joke. I say 'mostly' because I know of a great number of practitioners who literally do wonders. Sadly, they are busy with helping people not with smearing of public figures and therefore their work is not present in this publication.

    This is a prime example of 27 doctors reviewing 1 public figure they politically dislike. And, big surprise, they all find him lacking, aaand, even bigger surprise, here goes a host of diagnoses, all of them DIFFERENT ones. Yes, you take one guy, you subject him to the review of a host of doctors, and they will all give different evaluations, different medications, different instructions. Nice, huh?

    I'll list here the diagnoses (uncalled for and with no actual prior medical evaluation but published anyway, Goldwater rule be damned!):

    - Daddy issues, (why did I never hear anything of the same kind on Obama's 'Dreams from My Father'?)

    - narcissism, ('I alone can fix it' is sort of a weak proof of this... Can we test Obama and Bill?

    )

    - unbridled present hedonism, (uh-huh, the time preference theory of Zimbardo's, a theoretical concept without any statistical proof behind it)

    - paranoia, (yeah, half the US intensely dislikes the guy and we still get to call him a paranoiak)

    - trust deficit, (of course, POTUSES are known for trusting nature!)

    - political hemophilia, (whatever that means)

    - sadism, (diagnosis basing on Q: I'd like to punch him in the face'(c))

    - sociopathy,

    - psychopathy,

    - antisocial personality disorder,

    - delusional disorder,

    - opportunism,

    - hypomanic / bipolar, (diagnosis based on Q: I usually sleep only four hours a night. (c) Namely, all of us who need less sleep, must be bipolar... Lithium for everyone, right?)

    - arrested emotional development,

    - cognitive impairment,

    - dementia / neurological deterioration / incapacitated,

    - character pathology,

    - trauma victim,

    - insecure,

    - tyrant / dictator,

    - other-blamer,

    - pathology of low self-esteem,

    - crazy-as-a-fox,

    - crazy-as-a-crazy,

    - gaslighter (Hillary's strategies must be 'sincere omissions' and Trump's untruths are gaslighting, which ones the author refrained from telling)

    Poor guy, are their any disorders left in a book unassigned to him, forcefully? In any book? Maybe a volume 2 could cover those as well so the guy would have a collection of a full textbook of those.

    What scares one most is how the patients survive such doctors at all? Obviously, D. Trump does not have all of the above-mentioned stuff, at the same time, at least since many are mutually exclusive.

  • Trish

    The idea was just to see what the psychiatrists had done with the concept of viewing DJT from afar and telling us what they could see. I was skeptical, truthfully, and happen to agree with the Goldwater Rule: that mental health professionals should not make statements about the mental health of people they have not examined. But an introductory essay by Robert Jay Lifton was so smart, measured, and upfront about how their work could be considered political that I thought I’d read a little more.

    L

    The idea was just to see what the psychiatrists had done with the concept of viewing DJT from afar and telling us what they could see. I was skeptical, truthfully, and happen to agree with the Goldwater Rule: that mental health professionals should not make statements about the mental health of people they have not examined. But an introductory essay by Robert Jay Lifton was so smart, measured, and upfront about how their work could be considered political that I thought I’d read a little more.

    Lifton, a leading psychohistorian, points out that psychiatrists

    have a role in not normalizing evil as in the case of Hilter’s regime, normalizing the use of a nuclear weapon in WWII, or normalizing the enhanced interrogation techniques of the Iraq War. He thinks that psychiatrists have a moral obligation to use their skills to benefit society. He says that professional psychiatric organizations don’t often discuss that professional ethics should also include

    In “Unbridled and Extreme Present Hedonism” Philip Zimbardo and Rosemary Sword detail classic symptoms of the narcissistic personality disorder and pair recorded instances of DJT’s speeches, his tweets, his on-the-record remarks with reporters, biographers, and ghost writers. The authors are not using private privileged medical information to frame someone. They are taking the public persona of an individual who claims to be telling the truth and are showing parallels to a pathological narcissism.

    Craig Malkin does something similar in “Pathological Narcissism and Politics.” If at one time the citizenry expected they were observing an individual who appeared to be joking about the extreme positions he consistently takes, I doubt we feel the same way after a year of observing his continued positions and behaviors.

    In “Sociopathy,” Lance Does explains that “the failure of normal empathy is central to sociopathy, which is marked by an absence of guilt, intentional manipulation, and controlling or even sadistically harming others for personal power or gratification.” Here we must ask ourselves if what we are observing of the man is actually the man or some funhouse mirror reproduction of the man. Hard as it is to believe that someone with such a severe deficiency could get as far as he did, we have to admit there were people along the way, DJT’s ‘friend’

    , who said not to trust him.

    The mental health professionals whose essays were published in Part 2 feel a ‘duty to warn’ the country about the possible need to replace DJT, based on their understanding of the demands of the job he has undertaken and his mental capacity. Leonard Glass takes on this question directly in his essay, “Should Psychiatrists Refrain from Commenting on Trump’s Psychology?” Glass believes that “a professionally informed perspective” can be useful for citizenry so they may judge the man and the press about him.

    Even mental health professionals can exhibit bias, Glass tells us, but professionals make extra effort to recognize and account for said bias, if only to preserve their own reputations. Glass says we can’t know if DJT knows what he says is demonstrably untrue or not. What we

    know is that he cannot recognize having been wrong, nor does he appear able to learn from the experience so that he does not repeat the untruth or failure another day.

    Not all the essays were as measured as the ones cited above. Ones I thought could have been left out were those by DJT biographer Tony Schwartz (

    ), and one by Gail Sheehy who, however admirable an author and journalist, is not a psychiatrist. In addition, Diane Jhueck in “A Clinical Case for the Dangerousness of Donald J Trump” says DJT “should be of lower risk to violence than the average citizen…[he is] supposed to be our protector, and he is unwell and harmful.” I am not sure risk of violence was on the ballot. If anyone is to blame by those lights, it is the Republican Party, who allowed DJT to be primaried.

    The point is that indications of unfitness to serve may not appear until after a candidate is in office. If our government is to stand the test of leadership, we must rely on heroic bureaucrats who still have jobs to place obstacles in the way of business as usual, challenge their superiors at every step, and raise the specter of unfitness. When Howard Covitz begins to raise the notion of

    within the context of “Health, Risk, and The Duty to Protect the Community,” I honestly thought he was going to speak about the duty of bureaucrats and psychiatrists to speak out about aberrant behaviors.

    Actually, Covitz was asking if DJT has a conscience. Somehow I don’t feel we distant observers of the DJT phenomenon, even those with medical degrees, can reasonably be expected to answer that question. In Part 3 the essays try to explain what having a person like Trump in the WH means for trauma, anxiety, and feelings of abuse in the population at large. Again, I am not sure this should be the focus of the mental health professionals’ ‘duty to warn.’ If a major incident were handled badly by this president, they can say they made their fears known through this volume.

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